Scroll to metering modes on your Led display, not menu.
There are 4 possibilities on my camera.
1. Evaluative metering : this mode calculates all exposure as an average. On a Nikon camera this is called Matrix
2.Partial metering: this mode calculates 10-15% of exposure around your focal point.
3. Spot metering: This mode calculates 1-5% around the focal point.
4. Center-weighted average: this mode calculates only the light exposure at the centre of the frame.
I use spot metering for such things as birds because often the white or black parts come out with no detail otherwise. Overall you use spot metering when the object is much darker or much lighter than the background.
Center-weighted is used for portraits and many photographers use it for their default setting. It is also used for high contrast scenes.
Evaluative is used for evenly lit scenes
This cheat sheet explains it even more: Source: http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/06/01/metering-mode-cheat-sheet-how-they-work-and-when-to-use-them/
Here is one of my photos using spot metering AND exposure compensation. Otherwise these flowers would come out as a silhouette.